NUR 2214 Nursing Care of Older Adults Annotated Bibliography

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NUR 2214 Nursing Care of Older Adults Annotated Bibliography





Module 04

Module 04 Course Project – Annotated Bibliography

Module 04 Course Project – Annotated Bibliography

Module 04 Content

  1. Course Competency:
    • Compare the care models for nursing practice specific to the older adult.
    • Transferable Skill:
    • Information Literacy: Discovering information reflectively, understanding how information is produced and valued, and using information to create new knowledge and participate ethically in communities of learning.
    • Your nursing supervisor likes the topic you chose for the in-service presentation and wants you to start researching! To make sure you get the project on the right track, your supervisor has asked you to do the following:
    1. Using the Rasmussen Library, identify at least 2 resources pertaining to your topic.
    2. Prepare an annotated bibliography for the resources you identified. Each entry will include:
    3. the full APA formatted reference
    4. an annotation consisting of the following elements:


Polypharmacy happens when an elderly adult is prescribed or takes multiplemedications concurrently that interact with one another or take medicines that are not necessary totheir conditions. It also occurs when prescribers do not collaborate and work from their own silo leading to fragmentation of care and polypharmacy (Meiner et al., 2019).Consequently, it leads to increased Medicare spending and unnecessaryhospitalization, and increased expenditure on medical costs. All of these may occur either due toadverse drug events (multiple drug interactions), taking the medications prescribed incorrectly (adecline in functional ability), nonadherence to drugs due to lack of financial resources ormisunderstandings, and improper dietary intake. Other consequences include cognitive impairmentcommonly seen with both delirium and dementia is also associated with polypharmacy.A study by Maher and colleagues found that the number of medications was a risk factorfor delirium in hospitalized older adults. (Maher et al., 2019). Falls are associated with increasedmorbidity and mortality in older adults when patients consume certain medications.Additionally, urinary incontinence is another problem associated with using multiple drugs, whichexacerbate urinary incontinence (Maher).Lastly, a survey of community-dwelling elders older adults found that polypharmacy wasassociated with reduced intake of fiber, fat-soluble and vitamin B, and minerals and increasedcholesterol, glucose, and sodium. Hence the nutritional intake or dietary is also affected bypolypharmacy (Mainer et al., 2019)As patient advocates, nurses are responsible for assessing older adults’ medication duringtransitions in care and institutionalizations. A medication review needs to focus on all medicines,including those prescribed, over the counter, and illicit. Nurses should review all the medicationsthe patients take to address the need, interactions, and contraindications. While also ensuring providers prescribe the correct dose to prevent polypharmacy and the safety of older adults(Mainer et al., 2019).ReferencesMeiner, S.E. (2019). Gerontologic Nursing-E-Book. Elsevier Health Sciences.Maher, R L., Hanlon, J., & Hajjar, E.R. (2014). Clinical consequences ofpolypharmacy in elderly. Expert Opinion Drug Safety, 13(1), 57-65.

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