NURS 2513 Maternal Child Nursing Discussion

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NURS 2513 Maternal Child Nursing Discussion

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Discuss pharmacological versus non-pharmacological nursing interventions used for pain management during labor and birth. List two different classifications of drugs used for pain relief during labor and birth, and include potential side effects of the drugs on the fetus. Also, describe two nursing interventions by the nurse to provide comfort during labor and birth that could be considered as non-pharmacological and the expected outcomes.

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DISCUSS PHARMACOLOGICAL VERSUS NON-PHARMACOLOGICAL NURSING INTERVENTIONS USED FOR PAIN MANAGEMENT DURING LABOR AND BIRTH.  Non-Pharmacological Nursing Measures:          Focusing to a certain thing          Prayer          Heat/Cold therapy          Relaxation/Positioning          Proper Breathing Technique          Therapeutic massage  Pharmacological Nursing Measures:          Local Anesthesia          Epidural Anesthesia          Spinal Anesthesia/Spinal block          Narcotic Analgesics  LIST TWO DIFFERENT CLASSIFICATIONS OF DRUGS USED FOR PAIN RELIEF DURING LABOR AND BIRTH,  1.   NARCOTIC ANALGESICS  2.   ANESTHETIC  INCLUDE POTENTIAL SIDE EFFECTS OF THE DRUGS ON THE FETUS.  Narcotics Analgesic :            1.   May cause fetal Central Nervous System Depression.  2.   Can affect the lungs of the fetus and may cause respiratory depression since it is still immature.  Anesthetic  1.   This does not have teratogenic effects in humans however anesthesia plus surgery during pregnancy may cause low birthweight of even infant death.  ALSO, DESCRIBE TWO NURSING INTERVENTIONS BY THE NURSE TO PROVIDE COMFORT DURING LABOR AND BIRTH THAT COULD BE CONSIDERED AS NON-PHARMACOLOGICAL AND THE EXPECTED OUTCOMES.  a.   Proper Breathing Technique  b.   Therapeutic massage  Step-by-step explanation  Discuss pharmacological versus non-pharmacological nursing interventions used for pain management during labor and birth.  The following are the pharmacological and non pharmacological nursing interventions for mothers who are experiencing pain during labor and birth.  Non-Pharmacological Nursing Measures:  1.      Focusing to a certain thing          If a mother will divert her attention to something , and focus to it this may help her distract the feeling of pain.          Do not disturb the woman once she was focusing to something thus, this may break her concentration.          With this focusing, it keeps the sensory reaching the cortex of our brain that could eventually prevent the feeling of pain.  2.      Prayer- This may help some women to feel comfortable.  3.      Heat/Cold therapy          When a woman experiencing back  pain during labor a hot compress gives them a relief from pain.          Applying ice chips on the mother’s mouth during labor gives relief from dryness.          Placing a cool cloth on the frontal area or forehead may give mother’s feeling of comfort out form too much exertion after labor.  4.      Relaxation/Positioning          Commonly taught to the pregnant mothers when in labor or in childbirth classes.          Right position for mothers during labor promotes comfort and make mothers relaxed.          Listening to music can also help women as music therapy provides relaxation as well.          If pregnant mothers are relaxed during labor, this will prevent her abdominal wall from becoming tense, and letting the uterus to rise when in contraction preventing it to go against the abdominal wall.          Aromatherapy also gives relaxation to the mother while he is inside the birthing room.  5.      Proper Breathing Technique          This technique should be taught to the pregnant mother during prenatal or if she is not yet in labor, however this may still be taught when is already in labor.          One form of distractions also, since the pregnant mother will focus on how to breath in a slow paced instead of thinking the pain she has during labor or delivery.  6.      Therapeutic massage          This is the use of therapeutic touch to promote comfort and relieve pain.          Therapeutic touch Effleurage is commonly used and is beneficial during first and 2nd stage of labor.  Pharmacological Nursing Measures: Use of medications to address pain felt by pregnant mothers during labor.  1.      Local Anesthesia          It reduces local nerve fibers to elicit pain.          Uses for pain-free birth or during vaginal incision/episiotomy.          This form of anesthesia is used on the superficial nerves of the perineum.  2.      Epidural Anesthesia          This is classified as the most effective pharmacological intervention of pain control while in labor.  3.      Spinal Anesthesia/Spinal block          Usually sued for mothers undergoing scheduled cesarean section wherein the anesthesia does not need catheter because it will be introduce directly to the spinal fluid.  4.      Narcotic Analgesics          Meperidine as example is commonly used pain reliever during labor because of its content that is sedative and antispasmodic that relieves pain and relax the cervix. It is given 3 hours prior to delivery.          Usually narcotics are given intravenously and usually felt the effect wihin 2-4 hours after administration.          This medication does not limit the patient to be mobile.  List two different classifications of drugs used for pain relief during labor and birth  1.   NARCOTIC ANALGESICS  2.   ANESTHETIC  –      Analgesics may decrease the pain but the feeling and ability to move is still present, however the anesthetic, eliminates pain at the same time blocks the feeling and restricts the patient to move due to dizziness or inability to feel/numbness. Anesthetic pain medication may be Local  which only affect few area of the body, Systemic that affects the whole body or Regional that affects only specific region of the body like below the waist level.  Potential side effects of the drugs on the fetus  Narcotics Analgesic :          1.   May cause fetal Central Nervous System Depression.  2.   Can affect the lungs of the fetus and may cause respiratory depression since it is still immature.  Anesthetic  1.   This does not have teratogenic effects in humans however anesthesia plus surgery during pregnancy may cause low birthweight of even infant death.  Also, describe two nursing interventions by the nurse to provide comfort during labor and birth that could be considered as non-pharmacological and the expected outcomes.  Commonly used nursing interventions.  a.      Proper Breathing Technique    This also helps woman’s abdominal wall to relaxed during every contraction.  b.     Therapeutic massage    Endorphins increased as therapeutic touch/massage is applied that results in pain reduction.

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